Cycling Safely

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Cycling is a truly invigorating and liberating experience, enjoyed by people of all ages and from all walks of life.

Whether you're cycling to work, to school, to the shops or just for fun, the humble bicycle is an easy way to get more active.
Here is some simple advice to make cycling a safe and enjoyable experience.

Tips to stay safe
Look behind you before you turn, overtake or stop.
Use arm signals before you turn right or left.
Obey traffic lights and road signs.
Don't ride on the pavement unless there's a sign that says you can.
Don't cycle next to another person on busy or narrow roads.
When overtaking parked cars, watch out for car doors opening suddenly and allow room to pass safely.
Don't use headphones while cycling.
Never use a mobile phone while cycling

Safety gear checklist
Wearing a cycling helmet can help prevent a head injury if you fall off your bike.
It's important to wear a helmet that meets the following criteria:
It's marked as meeting the British Standard (BS EN 1078:1997).
It's a snug fit and positioned squarely on your head. It should sit just above your eyebrows, not tilted back or tipped forwards.
It's securely fastened by straps, which aren't twisted, with only enough room for two fingers between your chin and the strap.
Make sure you replace your helmet every five years. Don't buy a secondhand helmet — it may be damaged and may not protect you properly.

Lights and reflectors
If you use your bike at night, it is compulsory to have:
a white front light
a red rear light
a red rear reflector
amber/yellow pedal reflectors front and back on each pedal
Reflectors fitted to the front and the spokes will also help you be seen.
You can get lights that are steady or flashing, or a mixture of steady at the front and flashing at the back. A steady light at the front is important when you're cycling through areas without good street lighting.
Check that any steady light has the BS 6102-3 mark on it. Flashing lights don't have to meet the British Standard, but they do need to:
flash at a rate of one to four equal flashes per second
be at least four candelas in brightness
Your pedal reflectors and rear reflector must be marked with BS 6102-2. You can also use a light or reflector that meets a standard accepted by another European Commission (EC) country (equal to the British Standard).

Additional lights and reflectors
You can use other lights as well as the compulsory ones, but they must:
be the right colour — white at the front, red at the back
not dazzle other road users
If they're flashing, it must be at a rate of one to four equal flashes per second.

Bicycle road safety check
Do the following checks on your bike regularly to make sure it's in good working order.
Front tyre and wheels
Lift the front end of the bike by the handlebar stem and then:
give the top of the wheel a bang with your hand to check it doesn't fall out of the forks or move from side to side
check the wheel doesn't move from side to side when you try to wobble it to be sure the bearings aren't worn
spin the front wheel — the brakes shouldn't rub on the wheel rim
squeeze the sides of the tyre — inflate it if it feels soft
look for gaps, cuts, or bulges on the tyres — these are signs the tyres are worn and need to be replaced
If you have a front mudguard, there should be at least 5mm between the front mudguards and the tyre. Remove the mudguard if it rubs against the tip of your shoe when you pedal.
Lift the rear of the bike by the saddle and go through the same checks for the back wheels.
Brakes
Apply the front brakes. Check that:
the brakes work — try pushing the bike forward with the brakes on
the brake pads sit evenly on the wheel rim — they shouldn't touch at one end and not the other
the cables inside the brake levers aren't frayed
the brake levers and handgrips are tight on the handlebars, all the nuts and screws are attached, and the ends of the handlebar tube are covered
Apply the back brake and go through the same checks. The back tyre should slide, not roll, when you apply the brakes and push the bike forward.
Handlebars and steering
All the parts on the handlebars should be tight and you should be able to steer freely. Release the brakes and stand in front of the front wheel and grip it between your knees.
Then make sure nothing is loose when you try to:
turn the handlebars from side to side
apply the brakes and try to rotate the handlebars
Saddle
Your saddle should be set at a height that's comfortable for you. Place one heel on the pedal. Your leg should straighten when the pedal is furthest from the saddle.
Make sure you don't raise the saddle high enough to see the height limit mark on the seatpost. If the saddle needs to be this high for you to sit comfortably, you probably need a bigger bike.
Move towards the rear of the bike and hold the saddle tightly. Check that you can't move it up and down or side to side. If it moves, tighten it.
Chain, gears and pedals
Ask someone to work the pedals by hand while you hold the rear wheel off the ground by the saddle. Then:
shift through all the gears on the back sprocket (a small wheel the chain passes through) and front gear changer to check the chain stays on and moves smoothly
wobble each pedal from side to side to check they don't move too much — if they do, the bearings in the bottom bracket need replacing
Make sure the chain isn't hanging off, broken, or rusty. Lubricate the chain with some oil if necessary

LINKS
For the Highway Code as it applies to Cyclists

Free downloadable cycling e book

Sustrans

Cycling: Think!

Cycling for Beginners